Human Resources Management
Dissertation: A Study of Work Motivation and Job Satisfaction in Anta Sports Products Limited (Part 5 of 5)

Dissertation: A Study of Work Motivation and Job Satisfaction in Anta Sports Products Limited (Part 5 of 5)

CHAPTER V: DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION

5.1 Summary of the Research Findings

5.1.1 Findings from Descriptive Statistics about Job Satisfaction

Overall, from the descriptive statistics of questionnaires related to job satisfaction, it is found that most of the employees felt that they are satisfied with the amount of variety in their job scope. Such finding is probably due to the fact that in the sports equipment and apparels design department, people are often required to be innovative and to handle different design, be it in terms of art of product features. Thus, for the designers, their job scope must be vast. Then it is also found that employees do not feel that their job nature is boring. This is probably due to the nature of the tasks delegated to the designers as interesting, challenging and requiring a lot of imagination from the designers. Besides, it is also discovered that most of the employees perceived that they are actually finding real enjoyment in their work. This suggests that staffs largely have personality that suit the demand of their jobs. However, it is also found that the staffs perceived that their performances are largely not being recognized. This is the most serious issue to be solved, because when people feel that they are not recognized or valued, they may tend to derive less satisfaction from their jobs. Then, it is also discovered that staffs are not feeling satisfied with the chances of promotion in the company. The staffs perceive that they have lesser chance of being promoted in the company. This can be a serious issue, as when people cannot see the career path or a perceived viable growth chance in the company, they may feel unsatisfied due to a lack of hopeful and inspiring future. Considering the findings obtained above, management should think deeply about recognizing the contributions from employees and to provide a career path and promotion opportunities to the workforce. By doing both of these measures, the workforce satisfaction level can be furthered enhanced.

5.1.2 Findings from Descriptive Statistics about Work Motivation

Overall, from the descriptive statistics of questionnaires related to work motivation, most of the employees perceived that they believe that they indeed arrive at the office on time and do not leave early. A verbal discussion with the management found that the management thinks that many of the staffs will simply arrive early to prevent from being penalized (for example, getting a lower ranking in their annual performance appraisal). Besides, the staffs may stay back late because of three reasons. Firstly, they really have too much things to do, and they often not able to complete these tasks assigned to them on time. Secondly, they may simply stay back in the office to avoid heavy traffic jam during peak hours. Thirdly, some of the staffs may simply just stay back and pretend to be busy to impress the management – so that they are perceived as dedicated, responsible and hard working. Then it is also found that employees agreed that they will participate in training (be it provided by the company, or those that the employees take initiatives to attend seminars or other sorts of training programs) to improve their skills or competencies. This suggests that the workforce is roughly proactive in developing their skills and competencies further, they are pretty motivated in performing their jobs and to work as a designer in the company. Next, it is also found that the employees somehow largely agreed that they tend to think about matters related to works when they are at home. For this, it can be seen that the employees are pretty dedicated in their job, and are willing to spend the time to think about work matters even in their home. However, this could also means that the workloads on the staffs are high, forcing them to keep thinking on the ways to solve workplace problems or completion of tasks assigned to them, due to stresses and pressures from the management or market competition. It could also means that perhaps the employees are largely highly career oriented and focus a lot of efforts on their jobs. Nevertheless, it can be reasonable to believe that the staffs are quite proactive, responsible and willing to spend the necessary time for work matters. On the dark side, however, it is found that the employees agreed that they tend to blame others and will not take personal responsibilities for their part in mistakes. Surprisingly, their answers shows that they tend to associate mistakes to other people. This may indicate that in event of mistakes, people in the department will likely to blame others, probably to push away the responsibilities and mistakes to others.

5.1.3 A Summary of Findings for Each Research Questions

In this section, the key findings from the different research questions are summarized in table 5.1 as follow.

1a

1b

 

5.1.4 Relationships between Workforce Motivation and Employee Satisfaction

From the simulation, it is found that there are strong statistical relationships between workforce motivation and employee satisfaction. Statistically speaking, the correlation is statistically significant at the 1% level. The R2 of the regression model between workforce motivation and employee satisfaction is found to be 0.243. Technically speaking, this indicates that variation in workforce motivation able to explain 24.3% of the variation in employee satisfaction. The finding is consistent with the research findings from other studies, whereby other scholars also tend to find statistically significant relationships between workforce motivation and employees satisfaction.

5.2 A Review of the Research Objectives and Research Questionnaires

As presented previously in Chapter 1, three research objectives are outlined as follow. Firstly, the first research objective is to study the job satisfaction condition in the sports equipment and apparels design department in Anta Sports Products Limited. Next, the second research objective is to study the work motivation condition in the sports equipment and apparels design department in Anta Sports Products Limited.

Concerning the two research objectives, it is found that it can be concluded that the workforce motivation and employee satisfaction level in the sports equipment and apparels design department in Anta Sports Products Limited is satisfactory. However, there are many rooms for improvement. From the employee satisfaction perspective, it is found that a large portion of the employees apparently are not satisfied because their good works are not recognized. Secondly, it is also discovered that many of them perceive that they have low chances of promotion in the company. There are nonetheless, a small portion of people perceived that they have high chances of being promoted. On the other hand, from the workforce motivation perspective, it is found that the worst issue is that the workforce believes that they tend to blame others for mistakes occurred in the department. The staffs are less likely to take personal responsibilities in times of crises or mistakes. Then, it is also found that there is no viable mentorship system in the department to keep the staffs motivated. More than half of the workforce indeed do not have a mentor or coach, that may be useful in guiding them and motivate them in workplace.

Lastly, the third research objective is to investigate the relationships of work motivation and job satisfaction in the sports equipment and apparels design department in Anta Sports Products Limited. For this, it is found that there are statistically significance relationships between workforce motivation and employee satisfaction. Indeed, from the regression analysis, it is computed that the R2 of the regression model between workforce motivation and employee satisfaction is found to be 0.243.

5.3 Recommendations for Management

In this section, recommendations will be suggest on the ways managers can further improve workforce motivation and employee satisfaction in sports equipment and apparels design department in Anta Sports Products Limited. The various suggestions are presented in the following paragraphs.

To realize that recognizing employee performances is important. As previously discovered, it is also found that the staffs perceived that their performances are largely not being recognized. It is believed in this report that this is the issue must be handled immediately, as when the workforces feel that they are not recognized or valued, they may tend to derive less satisfaction from their jobs. For this, training could be provided to the management. Management may be required to study, learn and apply knowledge learned on motivation, psychology and recognition. Management should be aware that to praise the employees is actually an essential element in effective management process. Reading books on leadership could be influential towards changing the management mindset. For example, in the famous book, namely, ‘One Minutes Manager’, it is argued that to catch people doing right will reinforce the desired behaviors and attitudes among workforce, and is indeed a powerful tool to enhance employee satisfaction from the recognition they receive in workplace.

Better promotion and performance management system. This report also found that staffs are not feeling satisfied with the chances of promotion in the company. Specifically, only a small part of people feel that they do have good chances of promotion, while the majority of the people do not seem to be satisfied with the chances of promotion in the company. It suggests that the career paths in the department may not be designed properly, as a properly design career path should provide reasonable hope to the employees that they can progress well in the department. For this, lengthy discussion and investigation may be required, to understand the real root causes affecting the majority of the employees’ perception that they have no good chances of being promoted. It is probably because the corporate ladder in the department is too shallow. A more comprehensive corporate ladder should be created to give the workforce the hopes that they are progressing well in the organization.

Educate workforce to take responsibilities against mistakes. Then, it is also found that the employees agreed that they tend to blame others and will not take personal responsibilities for their part in mistakes. The workforces tend to associate mistakes to other people. In event of crisis, people are likely to blame others, probably to push away the responsibilities and mistakes to others. For this issue, team work spirit should be reinforced in the department. Employees that exhibit behaviors that able to take responsibilities on mistakes, should be rewarded, recognized and praised publicly. Those that capable of taking responsibility for mistakes, is it due to their personal self or by others, should be promoted to lead the team. Education for the workforce is crucial to change their mindset. All of these measures should be able to encourage people to take responsibility and have the right courage to solve problems whenever it arises.

Having an effective mentorship program. A lot of the employees perceived that they have no mentor in guiding them in the work, to keep them alert and motivated. This is because the company has an organizational culture whereby people should be proactive and able to act and work independently. Currently, it is also understood that there is no such thing as mentorship program in the company (except for the new comers or recent fresh graduates). For this, management should understand that mentorship is important in further enhancing the competencies, motivation and satisfaction in the department. Specifically, as it is discussed there are many rooms for further improvement in the department, mentorship may not be necessary on technical issues, but also on management and leaderships issues, to build team work spirit among the workforce. Thus, management should try to implement mentorship program in small scale, and then to incorporate the improvements planned and desired into the mentorship program. By assigning the more capable person the mentorship position, they may be able to learn faster as well. Overall, this could change the organizational culture into a more learning oriented division.

5.4 Suggestions for Further Research

In the future, there are many different types of study can be conducted to further understand the human resources management practices and effectiveness in the sports equipment and apparels design department in Anta Sports Products Limited. Some other issues that should be investigated, to further enhance the competencies and effectiveness of people management in the department include, but not limited to the following: appropriateness of reward system, the employees’ loyalty, leadership effectiveness and employees understanding on corporate vision and mission, can be researched and studied.

Besides, as this study is only performed on the sports equipment and apparels design department in Anta Sports Products Limited, the workforce motivation and employee satisfaction condition in other department is unknown. It is also possible to extend the research presented in this dissertation to other departments in Anta Sports Products Limited. The particular workforce motivation and employee satisfaction condition in other department may not be similar to the situation in the one found in sports equipment and apparels design department.

Then, on the larger scale, similar study can be extended to other Chinese companies. More variables, such as employee absenteeism, employee loyalty, workforce turnover rate and other relevant variables can be included. With this, the relationships between the different variables can be investigated. A comprehensive study linking all of these variables, particularly in Chinese managed companies, in China, is not available. Studies on these issues will further enhance scholars’ understandings on the driving forces behind effective people management practices and policies in China.

REFERENCES & BIBLIOGRAPHY

Agarwal, A. (2010). Motivation and Executive Compensation. IUP Journal of Corporate Governance, 9(1/2), 27-46.

Akbar, S., Yousaf, M., Haq, N., & Hunjra, A. (2011). Impact of Employee Empowerment on Job Satisfaction: An Empirical Analysis of Pakistani Service Industry. Interdisciplinary Journal of Contemporary Research In Business, 2(11), 680-685.

Allameh, S., Nouri, B., Tavakoli, S., & Shokrani, S. (2011). Studying of the relation between emotional intelligence and job satisfaction with due regard to regulative role of organizational learning capability (Case Study: Saderat Bank in Isfahan province). Interdisciplinary Journal of Contemporary Research In Business, 2(9), 347-364.

Al-Zu’bi, H. (2010). A Study of Relationship between Organizational Justice and Job Satisfaction. International Journal of Business and Management, 5(12), 102-109.

Ayupp, K., & Nguok, T. (2011). A study of workplace stress and its relationship with job satisfaction among Officers in the Malaysian Banking Sector. Interdisciplinary Journal of Contemporary Research In Business, 2(11), 403-417.

Back, K., Lee, C., & Abbott, J. (2011). Internal Relationship Marketing: Korean Casino Employees’ Job Satisfaction and Organizational Commitment. Cornell Hospitality Quarterly, 52(2), 111.

Bilal, M., Zia-ur-Rehman, M., & Raza, I. (2010). Impact of Family Friendly Policies on Employees’ Job Satisfaction and Turnover Intention (A study on work-life balance at workplace). Interdisciplinary Journal of Contemporary Research In Business, 2(7), 378-395.

Brown, M. A. (1976). Values–A necessary but neglected ingredient of motivation on the job. Academy of Management. The Academy of Management Review (pre-1986), 1(000004), 15.

Brown, S., & Huning, T. (2010). Intrinsic motivation and job satisfaction: the intervening role of goal orientation. Allied Academies International Conference. Academy of Organizational Culture, Communications and Conflict. Proceedings, 15(1), 1-5.

Burke, R., & Fiksenbaum, L. (2009). Work Motivations, Satisfactions, and Health Among Managers: Passion Versus Addiction. Cross – Cultural Research, 43(4), 349.

Carr, A. E., & Tang, T. L. P. (2005). Sabbaticals and Employee Motivation: Benefits, Concerns, and Implications. Journal of Education for Business, 80(3), 160-164.

Chan, S., & Qiu, H. (2011). Loneliness, job satisfaction, and organizational commitment of migrant workers: empirical evidence from China. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 22(5), 1109.

Chen, P., & Chih, J. (2011). The Relations between Learner Motivation and Satisfaction with Management Training: An Empirical Study in Taiwan. International Journal of Management,1  28(1), 77-90,198.

Czaplewski, A. J., Ferguson, J. M., & Milliman, J. F. (2001). Southwest Airlines: How internal marketing pilots success. Marketing Management, 10(3), 14-17.

Danish, R., & Usman, A. (2010). Impact of Reward and Recognition on Job Satisfaction and Motivation: An Empirical Study from Pakistan. International Journal of Business and Management, 5(2), 159-167.

Dewhurst, M., Guthridge, M., & Mohr, E. (2010). Motivating people: Getting beyond money. The McKinsey Quarterly,(1), 12.

Elamin, A., & Alomaim, N. (2011). Does Organizational Justice Influence Job Satisfaction and Self-Perceived Performance in Saudi Arabia Work Environment? International Management Review, 7(1), 38-49,94.

Fahr, R. (2011). Job Design and Job Satisfaction – Empirical Evidence for Germany?**. Management Revue, 22(1), 28-46.

Furnham, A.,  Eracleous, A., &  Chamorro-Premuzic, T. (2009). Personality, motivation and job satisfaction: Hertzberg meets the Big Five. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 24(8), 765-779.

Giannikis, S., & Mihail, D. (2011). Modelling job satisfaction in low-level jobs: Differences between full-time and part-time employees in the Greek retail sector. European Management Journal, 29(2), 129.

Hardage, G. (2006). Profile: communicating the southwest way. Strategic Communication Management, 10(3), 4.

Huang, T. (2011). Comparing motivating work characteristics, job satisfaction, and turnover intention of knowledge workers and blue-collar workers, and testing a structural model of the variables’ relationships in China and Japan. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 22(4), 924.

Humby, C., Hunt, T., & Phillips, T. (2004). Scoring points: how Tesco is winning customer loyalty. Sterling, VA: Kogan Page.

Jeffords, R., Scheidt, M., & Thibadoux, G. M. (1997). Getting the best from staff. Journal of Accountancy, 184(3), 101-105.

Jiang, X. (2010). How to Motivate People Working in Teams. International Journal of Business and Management, 5(10), 223-229.

Jindal-Snape, D., & Snape, J. B. (2006). Motivation of scientists in a government research institute :Scientists’ perceptions and the role of management. Management Decision, 44(10), 1325-1343.

Joseph, K., & Dai, C. (2010). Human Resources Motivation in a Workplace A Case Study of a Utility Company in Abidjan, Cote D’Ivoire. Interdisciplinary Journal of Contemporary Research In Business, 1(12), 151-159.

Katsikea, E., Theodosiou, M., Perdikis, N., & Kehagias, J. (2011). The effects of organizational structure and job characteristics on export sales managers’ job satisfaction and organizational commitment. Journal of World Business, 46(2), 221.

Kosteas, V. (2011). Job Satisfaction and Promotions. Industrial Relations, 50(1), 174.

LAURENCE, F. (1973). MANAGERIAL STRATEGY FOR THE FUTURE: THEORY Z MANAGEMENT. California Management Review (pre-1986), 15(000003), 68.

Leat, M., & El-Kot, G. (2009). Interpersonal trust at work, intrinsic motivation, work-related tension and satisfaction in Egypt. International Journal of Workplace Health Management, 2(2), 180-194.

Ma, Y., Ding, J., & Hong, W. (2010). Delivering Customer Value Based on Service Process: The Example of Tesco.com. International Business Research, 3(2), 131-135.

Mahal, P. (2009). Organizational Culture and Organizational Climate as a Determinant of Motivation. IUP Journal of Management Research, 8(10), 38-51.

Malik, M., & Usman, A. (2011). Role Overload, Job Satisfaction and their Effect on Layoff Survivor’s Job Retention and Productivity. Interdisciplinary Journal of Contemporary Research In Business, 2(11), 427-440.

Matheny, G. (2008). Money Not Key to Happiness, Survey Finds. Physician Executive, 34(6), 14-15.

Matiaske, W., & Grözinger, G. (2011). Introduction: Job Satisfaction Revisited. Management Revue, 22(1), 5-7.

May-Chiun, L., & Ramayah, T. (2011). Mentoring and job satisfaction in Malaysian SMEs. The Journal of Management Development, 30(4), 427-440.

McShane, S. L., & Von Glinow, M. A. (2010). Organizational Behavior (Fifth Edition). New York: McGraw Hill/ Irwin.

Miao, R. (2011). Perceived Organizational Support, Job Satisfaction, Task Performance and Organizational Citizenship Behavior in China. Journal of Behavioral and Applied Management, 12(2), 105-127.

Miles, S. J., & Mangold, W. G. (2005). Positioning Southwest Airlines through employee branding. Business Horizons, 48(6), 535-545.

Mondy, R. W. (2010). Human Resource Management (Eleventh Edition). New York: Pearson.

Munaf, S. (2009). Motivation, Performance and Satisfaction Among University Teachers: Comparing Public and Private Sectors in Pakistan and Malaysia. South Asian Journal of Management, 16(4), 7-28.

Olasupo, M. (2011). Relationship between organizational culture, leadership style and job satisfaction in a nigerian manufacturing organization. Ife Psychologia, 19(1), 159-176.

Orpen, C. (1997). The effects of formal mentoring on employee work motivation, organizational commitment and job performance. The Learning Organization, 4(2), 53-60.

Pedrycz, W., Russo, B., & Succi, G. (2011). A model of job satisfaction for collaborative development processes. The Journal of Systems and Software, 84(5), 739.

Pepe, M. (2010). The Impact Of Extrinsic Motivational Dissatisfiers On Employee Level Of Job Satisfaction And Commitment Resulting In The Intent To Turnover. Journal of Business & Economics Research, 8(9), 99-107.

Plimmer, G. (2010). Scoring points: How Tesco continues to win customer loyalty. Journal of Revenue and Pricing Management: Special Issue: AGIFORS 2009 Conference, 9(4), 377-378.

Poggi, A. (2010). Job satisfaction, working conditions and aspirations. Journal of Economic Psychology, 31(6), 936.

Pollitt, D. (2010). Tesco Academy nurtures top talent. Training & Management Development Methods, 24(2), 525-529.

Poornima, S. (2009). Motivating Through Satisfaction: An Ongoing Effort of HR in Organizations. IUP Journal of Management Research, 8(5), 26-37.

Prasada-Rao, Y. V. S. S. S. V.  (2006). Motivation model for improving productivity in a manufacturing unit – a success story. International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management, 55(5), 430-436.

Rhoades, D. L. (2006). Growth, customer service and profitability Southwest style. Managing Service Quality, 16(5), 538-547.

Robinson, C. (2010). The Keys to Turbo-Charging Intrinsic Motivation. The Journal for Quality and Participation, 33(3), 4-8.

Rose, V. (2010). Monetary Motivation, Performance and Job Satisfaction. Journal of Applied Management and Entrepreneurship, 15(3), 118-120.

Saleem, R., Mahmood, A., & Mahmood, A. (2010). Effect of Work Motivation on Job Satisfaction in Mobile Telecommunication Service Organizations of Pakistan. International Journal of Business and Management, 5(11), 213-222.

Sell, L., & Cleal, B. (2011). Job Satisfaction, Work Environment, and Rewards: Motivational Theory Revisited. Labour, 25(1), 1-23.

Shahzad, K., Hussain, S., Bashir, S., Chishti, A., & Nasir, Z. (2011). Organizational Environment, Job Satisfaction and Career Growth Opportunities: A Link to Employee Turnover Intentions in Public Sector of Pakistan. Interdisciplinary Journal of Contemporary Research In Business, 2(9), 45-56.

Shiang-Lih, C., McCain,  Tsai, H.,  &  Bellino, N. (2010). Organizational justice, employees’ ethical behavior, and job satisfaction in the casino industry. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 22(7), 992-1009.

Springer, G. (2011). A Study of Job Motivation, Satisfaction, and Performance among Bank Employees. Journal of Global Business Issues, 5(1), 29-42.

Stamov-Roßnagel, C., & Hertel, G. (2010). Older workers’ motivation: against the myth of general decline. Management Decision, 48(6), 894-906.

Stringer, C.,  Didham,  J., &  Theivananthampillai, P. (2011). Motivation, pay satisfaction, and job satisfaction of front-line employees. Qualitative Research in Accounting and Management, 8(2), 161-179.

Tabassi, A., & Bakar, A. (2009). Training, motivation, and performance: The case of human resource management in construction projects in Mashhad, Iran. International Journal of Project Management, 27(5), 471.

TOMER, J. F.  (1981). Worker Motivation: A Neglected Element in Micro-Micro Theory. Journal of Economic Issues (pre-1986), 15(000002), 351.

Vilma, Z., & Egle, K. (2007). Improving motivation among health care workers in private health care organizations :A perspective of nursing personnel. Baltic Journal of Management, 2(2), 213-224.

Whitaker, P. (2010). What non-financial rewards are successful motivators? Strategic HR Review, 9(1), 43.

White, M., Cooper, J., Saunders, J., & Raganella, A. (2010). Motivations for becoming a police officer: Reassessing officer attitudes and job satisfaction after six years on the street. Journal of Criminal Justice, 38(4), 520.

 

 

 

(Visited 70 times, 1 visits today)

About the author

Related Post

Leave a comment

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *