Many business managers that love reading would definitely know about some of the famous and bestselling business books such as In Search of Excellence by Peters & Waterman (1988) or Built to Last: Successful Habits Of Visionary Companies authored by Collins & Porras (1994). Reading these best-selling business management books would likely convince the reader about the importance of corporate culture or organisational culture in affecting firm performance or business success. In other words, the key theme of these popular books is that organisational culture is the determinant of corporate success and effectiveness.
From the academic point of view as well, there are many arguments and theories as well on how organisational culture may affect firm performance or the possibility to attain competitive advantage within a competitive industry (Akdere & Schmidt, 2007; Baird, Harrison & Reeve, 2007; Freiling & Fichtner, 2010; Gardner, 1999; Levin, 2000). In a way, it can be understood that organisational culture is a very important construct to be studied or managed properly, as to contribute to better organisational performance.
Within such a context, one of the areas within the context of organisational culture is about how organisational culture may affect employee performance. Some of the previous studies available on examining about the relationships between organisational cultures to employee performance include the following: Paarlberg (2007), Uddin, Luva & Hossian (2013) and Tziner, Shultz & Fisher (2008).
While there are indeed some studies available that indicates the importance or impact of organisational culture on employee performance, there is however none of such studies available within the context of China. In other words, the impacts or possible influence of organisation culture towards employee performance within organisations in China is unknown. Such gap in the literature will be addressed in this essay.
Organisational culture is often perceived as one of the sources of competitive advantage, above average performance or the determinants of business success. It is often through strong organisational culture that a company able to achieve its intended mission and vision (Peters & Waterman, 1988; Schein, 1992; Collins & Porras, 1994; Akdere & Schmidt, 2007; Kissack & Callahan, 2010; Prenestini & Lega, 2013; Pinho, 2014). This chapter will present the foundational information on organisational culture, through a review of the materials within the academic literature. For that, this chapter will be structured in the following sequence:
- A review on the concept and definitions pertaining to organisational culture
- The various dimensions of organisational culture
- The importance of organisational culture in the context of business management
- The different types of organisational culture
- The ‘Organisational Culture Profile’ framework
- Empirical evidences related to organisational culture
From the review of the literature, it can be noticed that there are many scholarly journals on the topic related to organisational culture. However, the review of these materials had also found that there is a lack of consensus agreement on the definition of organisational culture. In other words, the different scholars had defined the term ‘organisational culture’ differently. In order to get a grasp on the concept of organisational culture, some of the definition available within the scholarly literature will be presented. This is shown in Table below.
Table 1: Definitions of Organisational Culture
|Schein (1983: p. 15)||Organisational culture is the pattern of basic assumptions which a particular group of people had created or developed in the process of dealing with its problems of external adaptation and internal integration, which have worked well enough to be considered valid, and, therefore, to be taught to new members as the correct way to perceive, think, and feel in relation to those problems|
|Deshpande & Webster (1989: p. 5)||Organizational culture is the pattern of shared values and beliefs that assist people to comprehend the organizational functioning and the behavioural norms within an organisation|
|Meyerson & Martin (1987: p. 2)||Culture is the subjective side of organisational life.|
|Schein (1990)||Organisational culture is the deeper level of basic assumptions and beliefs that are shared by members of an organisation, that operate unconsciously, and that define in a basic “take for granted” fashion and organisation’s view of itself and its environment|
|Smith (2003, p. 251)
|Organisational culture is about the ways people execute tasks within an organisation, that include the basic values, rites and rituals within the organisation, which eventually influence the company’s climate within an organisation.|
|Taormina (2008: p. 86)||Culture is about the values, beliefs, attitudes and behaviours of people.|
|Barclay (2010: p. 2)||Organisational culture is a dynamic phenomenon that surrounds people at all times, being constantly enacted and created by people interactions with others and shaped by leadership behaviour, which eventually gave rise to a set of structures, routines, rules, and norms that guide and constrain behaviour|
|Kissack & Callahan (2010: p. 367)||Organisational culture is the shared values, assumptions, artefacts, language, and rituals that determine how business is being conducted within an organisation|
|Du Plessis, Visagie & Wijnbeek (2011, p. 16)
|Organisational culture is the pattern of beliefs and values, rituals and sentiments that is shared by the members of an organisation, which affect the behaviours of all individuals and groups within an organisation.|
|Lo (2012: p. 153)||Organisational culture is the underlying values, beliefs, and principles that serve as foundation for the organization’s management system as well as the set of management practices and behaviours that both exemplify and reinforce those basic principles.|
|Carlström & Ekman (2012: p. 178)||Culture is about the corporate values that are ‘embodied’ in individuals of which are also shared by the collective|
Overall, it can be seen that there are many different definitions or varieties of definitions on organisational culture within the literature. However, it can be seen that these definitions indeed shared similar connotation or theme. For that, organisational culture is often regarded as something that is about:
- The underlying assumptions, values, beliefs or rituals adopted by people
- Cultures are often taken for granted
- The cultures affect the attitudes and behaviours of people
- Culture governs how business is conducted within an organisation
Aside from that, it is also possible to better comprehend the concept of organisational culture by understanding about the various dimensions of organisation culture. Through understanding about the dimensionality of cultures, it is possible to better comprehend the concept of culture – which will be important for the discussion within this dissertation. For that, the discussions or frameworks presented by the different scholars on organisational culture will be presented in Table 2 below.
Table 2: Dimensions of Organisation Culture
|O’Reilly, Chatman & Caldwell (1991)||Aggressiveness
Attention to details
Respect for people
|Zachariadou, Zannetos & Pavlakis (2013)||Competitiveness
Emphasis on rewards
Overall, the discussion above shows that organisation culture can be investigated and analysed from many different dimensions. In other words, organisation culture is a multi-dimensional construct. With that understanding, it is crucial to research organisational culture from multiple dimensions, for better accuracy of research findings. For that, as will be later discussed further, the framework of organisation culture as developed by O’Reilly, Chatman & Caldwell (1991) will be employed. Such framework is also known widely as the Organisational Culture Profile. As shown in Table 2 above, such a model postulates that organisation culture can be divided into these dimensions: aggressiveness; attention to details; innovation; outcome orientation; respect for people; stability; and team orientation.
There are many ideas or theories on why organisation culture can be very important. For that, a review on the importance of organisation culture will be provided, as to better understand on the contribution or effects of organisational culture on the various outcomes pertaining to an organisation. In such a perspective, the importance of organisation culture includes the following:
- To provide common and shared understandings between workforce (Levin & Gottlieb, 2009; DiBella, 1996)
- To provide implicit guidance on employees on how to make decision during execution or carrying out a business task (Akdere & Schmidt, 2007; Goddard, 1997)
- To unite and integrate the various functional divisions within an organisation (Levin, 2000)
- The right culture can contribute to employee satisfaction and employee commitment (Silverthorne, 2004)
- The right culture can motivate employee for better performance (Pool, 2000; Jashapara, 2003)
- Assist and support the execution of corporate strategy (Baird, Harrison & Reeve, 2007)
- To support the innovation initiatives among employees (Kenny & Reedy, 2006)
- To chart the learning process among the workforce (Freiling & Fichtner, 2010)
- To guide corporate change management for better performance (DiBella, 1996)
- Contribute to better profitability of financial performance (Akdere & Schmidt, 2007; Zabid, Sambasivan & Johari, 2003; Goddard, 1997)
- Culture charts the progress and evolution of a firm (Olasupo, 2011)
- To contribute to stability, continuity and predictability of organizational life (Alston & Tippett, 2009; Rijal, 2010)
Overall, as can be seen from the discussion presented above, it can be understood that organisation culture is indeed an important component or determinant of organisational outcomes. It is crucial as it will not only affect the financial performance of a firm, but also the non-financial performance of a firm, such as on issues related to: growth, innovation, learning, motivation, employee commitment, employee satisfaction, and sustainability of a firm. However, it is also noted that not all sort of organisation culture may affect firm performance or outcomes positively. In other words, some culture may contribute to firm performance while some other culture may not. To better understand about such issue, a review of the different types of organisational culture will be carried out in the subsequent section.
It is unavoidable that different organisations have different organisation culture, as there are virtually too many different ways on how the different shared behaviours, assumptions, routines, belief and norms affect the people within an organisation. For that, scholars had tried to investigate and characterise the different types of organisation cultures available. Through understanding how the different organisation culture may affect different firms differently, it is possible to better understand how the different culture may exert different impacts on an organisation. To better review on the types of organisation culture as discussed by scholars, the models or theories developed by the different scholars in characterising the types of organisational culture will be presented in Table 3 below.
Table 3: Types of Organisation Culture
|Scholars||Types of Organisation Culture|
|Deal and Kennedy (1982)||Work-hard-play-hard culture
Tough macho culture
|Harrison & Stokes (1992)||Power culture
|Chung-Ming, Tse & Zhou (2002)
|Harrison (2004), Lysons (2000), Easton (1996), Muafi (2009)||Power culture
|Sharimllah, Siong & Ismail (2011)
From the information presented above, it can be seen that there are indeed many different types of organisation culture, albeit the different scholars may employed or developed different models or frameworks in their respective research into organisation culture. For that, one of the common or widely accepted ways to better analysed the types of organisation culture available is the instrument of Organisational Culture Profile as developed by O’Reilly, Chatman & Caldwell (1991). As will be discussed later in the subsequent section, such instrument is useful in characterising the corporate culture of an organisation – of which it will offer insights to researchers or even practitioners on the types of organisation culture available within a firm. The instrument will be employed within this dissertation, in order to research into the organisation culture of China Coal Energy Pte Ltd. The discussions pertaining to such instrument will be presented below.
The instrument of Organisational Culture Profile (OCP) was developed by O’Reilly, Chatman & Caldwell (1991), and is useful to analyse the organisation culture of a firm or company. It is also one of the most widely employed instruments within the context of academic research into the issues related to organisation culture. For example, some of the studies or scholars that had employed the instrument include the following: Baird, Harrison & Reeve (2007); Baird, Kristal & Reeve (2011); Hillary & O’Reilly (2007); Sarros, Gray, Densten & Cooper (2005); Teh, Boerhannoeddin & Ismail (2012); Vandenberghe (1999); as well as Zachariadou, Zannetos & Pavlakis (2013).
The very initial reason for the development of Organisational Culture Profile (OCP) by O’Reilly, Chatman & Caldwell (1991) in order to examine if a particular employee can fit well within certain organisation culture; as it is believed that the person-organisation fit is crucial in affecting the performance of an employee. This is because every individual has their respective values and belief system, and that will affect their interaction with the others in a group, team or organisation. For that, it is important that the personal value of an employee fit the organisation value of an organisation, of which the organisation’s value is one of the core elements that affect or constitute the organisation culture (O’Reilly, Chatman & Caldwell, 1991). Concerning such, a review of the model of Organisational Cultural Profile (OCP) will be further provided in the next paragraphs.
Under the model of Organisation Cultural Profile (OCP), it is postulated that organisational culture can be characterised using a total of seven dimensions, of which such notion had been discussed earlier; that organisation culture is a multi-dimensional construct. To explain, under the model of Organisation Cultural Profile (OCP), the seven dimensions of organisational culture include the following: (i) aggressiveness, (ii) attention to details, (iii) innovation, (iv) outcome orientation, (v) respect for people, (vi) stability, and (vii) team orientation. Under such a model, the organisation culture of a particular company can be accessed or gauged by examining about the scores of the each and every dimensions of organisational culture as outlined above. It is from such a score that the organisational culture of the company can be measured, or even to be compared to the organisational culture of other companies.
Then, under each of these dimensions, various items were developed to access the score achieved by a company on that particular dimension. In the model, these various items were actually the respective organisational values that describe a particular dimension of organisational culture (O’Reilly, Chatman & Caldwell, 1991). As shown in Table 5 below, the seven cultural dimensions as postulated under Organisation Cultural Profile (OCP), as well as the various organisation values that characterise or describe each of these dimension are presented.
Table 4: Cultural Dimensions and the Respective Organisation Values
|Cultural Dimensions||The Respective Items or Values|
Ø Socially responsible
|Attention to details||Ø Precise
Ø Attention to detail
Ø Risk taking
Ø Rule oriented
|Outcome orientation||Ø Achievement oriented
Ø Action oriented
Ø High expectations
Ø Result oriented
|Respect for people||Ø Respect for individuals
Ø Rules and regulations
|Team orientation||Ø Team oriented
Ø People oriented
There are some studies being conducted based on the use of Organisational Culture Profile (OCP). To better understand how the other scholars or researchers had employed the tool of Organisational Culture Profile (OCP), a review of those previous studies that had employed such instrument will be reviewed and then discussed. These studies will be presented accordingly in Table 4 below.
Table 5: Studies Using Organisational Culture Profile (OCP)
|Judge & Cable (1997)||A study was conducted via the use of both OCP instrument and the model of Big 5 Personality. It is found that job seekers indeed do consider about the organisation values of the organisation, when considering about the jobs offer.|
|Vandenberghe (1999)||A study was conducted to examine about the impact of person-organisation fit may affect the employee turnover situations. Based on the instrument of OCP, it is found that congruency of person-organisation fit can reduce employee turnover rate.|
|Christian & François (2005)||The organisational culture of accounting firms in French were examined (through the use of OCP), It is found that these firms score highly on these cultural dimensions: (i) innovation, (ii) respect for humans, (iii) results orientation, and (iv) stability.|
|Castiglia (2006)||The researcher had employed OCP within the study of how person-organisation fit may affect the conditions of employees. It is found that better person-organisation fit can affect job satisfaction and commitment.|
|Hillary & O’Reilly (2007)||Through the use of OCP in surveying about the importance of person-organisation fit. Through such study, it is found that when an employee fit the organisational culture, the particular employee would tend to have better outcomes (such as: satisfaction, commitment, and engagement).|
|Baird, Harrison & Reeve (2007)||OCP was employed to characterise the organisational culture of Australian companies. From the OCP model, it is found that many of the Australian companies can be characterised by two dimensions, namely: (i) outcome orientation as well as (ii) respect for people.|
|Borg, Groenen, Jehn, Bilsky & Schwartz (2009)||The validity and reliability of OCP was examined. The usefulness of OCP was ascertained. The model is found to be feasible to support the research into issue such as person-organisation fit.|
|Baird, Kristal & Reeve (2011)||The impact of organisational culture towards the effectiveness of Total Quality Management (TQM) implementation was examined. Through the use of OCP, it is found that firms that score highly on certain cultural dimensions, such as: (i) innovative, (ii) outcome orientation, (iii) respect for people, and (iv) teamwork; tend to be more successful in the adoption and implementation of Total Quality Management (TQM).|
|Teh, Boerhannoeddin & Ismail (2012)||The impact of organisational culture (through the use of OCP instrument) towards affecting the performance appraisal process within higher educational institution was examined. It is found that organisational culture indeed does have significant effects on the performance appraisal process. Aside from that, the validity of the OCP instrument is examined. It is found that it is indeed a valid instrument to be used reliably in investigating or describing the culture of even an educational entity.|
Overall, the previous studies by other researchers or academic scholars found the following:
- OCP is a valid and reliable tool or instrument to be used in research concerning study into organisational culture. Specifically, OCP can be used to examine about the organisational culture of a firm.
- There are evidences supporting the importance of person-organisation fit.
- There are evidences that organisational culture can affect outcomes of a company, such may include the performance of employees, or even the execution of certain management practices such as Total Quality Management (TQM).
From such findings, it is therefore reasonable to argue that the instrument of Organisational Cultural Profile (OCP) is a valid tool to be used within the conduct of research in this dissertation – given that many of the academic studies available had offer support towards the validity and reliability of such a tool in characterising or explaining the organisational culture of a particular organisation. With that, such a tool is indeed relevant and suitable for the conduct of this particular research; and the selection of such instrument in the examination of organisational culture of China Coal Energy Pte Ltd. is appropriate and sensible.
In the first part of the literature review, intensive review on materials related to organisational culture, specifically focusing on the instrument or research related to Organisational Cultural Profile (OCP) was performed. In the second part of this chapter, the focus is however on the construct of employee performance, given that the construct of employee performance is yet another important issue examined or researched within this study.
Broadly speaking, employee performance can be interpreted as the degree of productivity of employee, which will eventually affect the performance or effectiveness of an organisation (Hameed & Waheed, 2011). Then, there is also view that employee performance is about how the work produced by an employee can add value to the achievement of organisation mission or goals (Tekeli & Pasaoglu, 2011; Njanja, Maina, Kibet & Njagi, 2013).
It would be self-explanatory that employee performance is important, as the performance of an employee will eventually exert effects on the various organisational outcomes and organisational performance (Behn, 2003; Yurchisin & Park, 2010). Indeed, as argued by Nafei (2013), research into employee performance is becoming more important in recent years given that the business environment is becoming more competitive, and that demand the management to enhance the competitiveness of a business entity by leveraging on the performance of employees. This is even more relevant when considering that under the era of knowledge economy that businesses are experiencing nowadays, employees are the main resources of an organisation, which represent one of the single biggest investment within corporations (Schraeder & Jordan, 2011; Kowalewski & Phillips, 2012). In other words, the employee is the critical resources to be properly managed and leveraged for competitive advantage, and hence the importance of employee performance related issues in the field of business management.
Overall, the importance of employee performance is demanding management to pay attention to such issue, and it is also one of the reasons that such issue is researched and examined within this dissertation. In the next section however, discussion will focus on how the construct of employee performance can be a multi-dimensional construct.
It is not hard to comprehend that employee performance is a multi-dimensional construct. For that, many different scholars had tried to model about employee performance and suggested a variety of frameworks to model about employee performance. For instance, Hunt (1996) argued that the performance of an employee can be assessed from two broad dimensions, which include: (i) minimum performance behaviours, and (ii) organisational citizenship behaviours. To explain, the concept of ‘minimum performance behaviours’ is about the performance required from a particular employee, so that the employee is actually meeting the minimal requirements to stay within the employment relationship with the employer. Some of such issues include the self-discipline of employee as well as the attendance of employees. Then, ‘organisational citizenship behaviours’ is about the performance of an employee that would be the valued added provided by the employee to the organisation. Some of such elements include: work ethics or schedule flexibility of an employee in attending to the needs of the organisation. Aside from that, scholars such as Biswas & Varma (2012) however argued that employee performance can be examined from two broad dimensions, which are: in-role and extra-role. Specifically, it is explained that in-role performance refers to an employee’s action to fulfil the requirements of his job description; while extra-role performance refers to actions outside the formal role requirements and are at the employee’s discretion. Yet, from another point of view, Carr (1993) however suggested that the performance of a manager can be measured from three main dimensions, which are: productivity, teamwork, and entrepreneurship (creativity). Other than that, scholars such as Tran & Davis (2013) had also discussed that it is also possible to examine the construct of performance from these dimensions: financial performance, business performance and strategic performance.
The concept of employee performance as multi-dimensional construct is also well acknowledged in actual workplace. Indeed, it is also a wide practice that employee performance in the actual workplace is measured from multiple dimensions. For example, as discussed in Jensen, Luthans, Lebsack & Lebsack (2007), some of the dimensions measured by Human Resources Department (within a particular company of which the scholars were examining) include the following: the service quality offered to customers, The productivity of a particular employee, the flexibility of an employee, the quality of work produced, willingness to go the extra mile, reliability of a particular employee, and the working relationships of a particular employee with the others in workplace.
Overall, the discussion presented above indicates the nature of employee as multi-dimensional construct. For that, the issue concerning employee performance within this dissertation will also be examined from multiple dimensions. Nevertheless, a review on how some factors may affect employee performance will be reviewed as well, in the next section. This is critical as aside from organisational culture, there are many other factors that may affect employee performance. Such discussion will be presented accordingly below.
In this dissertation, it is postulated that organisational culture can affect employee performance. However, it is also crucial to ware of how many other factors aside from organisational culture can be significant in affecting employee performance. Given that awareness, a review on the literature on how some other factors may affect employee performance will also be carried out and discussed. To tidy up the research findings on materials within such context, how the different factors may affect employee performance are presented accordingly in Table 6 below.
Table 6: Factors Affecting Employee Performance
|Category||Factors||Empirical Evidences Available/ Scholars|
|Individual factors||Diet of employee||· Edwards (1993)|
|Employee psychological well-being
|· Avey, Nimnicht & Nancy (2010)
· Albrecht (2012)
· Baptiste (2008)
· Robertson, Alex & Cooper (2012)
|Personality of employee
|· Shi, Chen & Zhou (2011)
· Sawyerr, Srinivas & Wang (2009)
· Tracey, Sturman & Tews (2007)
|Employee ability||· Cheng & Kalleberg (1996)|
|· Zhen, Tsui & Farh (2002)
· Becker, Billings, Eveleth & Gilbert (1996)
· Sharma, Borna & Stearns (2009)
· Dhammika, Ahmad & Sam (2012)
· Biswas (2011)
|Employee motivation||· Cheng & Kalleberg (1996)|
|Employee engagement||· Endres & Mancheno-Smoak (2008)
· Markos & Sridevi (2010)
· Mone, Eisinger, Guggenheim, Price & Stine (2011)
· Anitha (2014)
· Robertson, Alex & Cooper (2012)
|Self-confidence||· Jong, Ko & Wetzels (2006)|
|Optimism||· Jensen, Luthans, Lebsack & Lebsack (2007)|
|Employee emotional intelligence||· Kahtani (2013)|
|Employee cultural intelligence||· Nafei (2013)|
|Political skills||· Chaudhry, Ashraf & Jaffri (2012)|
|Feedback-seeking behaviours||· Asumeng (2013)|
|Job related issue||Job design
|· Cheng & Kalleberg (1996)
· Sekiguchi, Burton & Sablynski (2008)
· Albrecht (2012)
· Ali & Zia-ur-Rehman (2014)
· Sargent & Terry (1998)
|Job-person fit||· Scroggins (2008)|
|Job satisfaction||· Namasivayam (2003)
· Biswas & Varma (2012)
· Mofoluwake & Oluremi (2013)
· Ing-San & Der-Jang (2005)
· Jaksic & Jaksic (2013)
· Maharani, Troena & Noermijati (2013)
· Dhammika, Ahmad & Sam (2012)
|Job stress||· Mofoluwake & Oluremi (2013)
· Ko, Wetzels & Feinberg (2001)
|Goal setting||· Wong, Nerstad & Dysvik (2014)|
|Career management||· Noe (1996)|
|Supervisor related issues||Leadership
|· Sharkie (2009)
· Biswas & Varma (2012)
· Wong, Nerstad & Dysvik (2014)
· Jam, Rehman, Kamran & Yameen (2012)
· Liaw, Chi & Chuang (2010)
· Maharani, Troena & Noermijati (2013)
|Mentoring||· Orpen (1997)|
|Interaction with supervisor||· Chieh-Peng & Chun (2004)
· Michael, Leschinsky & Gagnon (2006)
· Topper (2007)
· Orpen (1995)
· Zhen, Tsui & Farh (2002)
· Houger (2006)
|Workplace factors||Workplace spirituality
|· Osman-Gani, Hashim & Yusof (2013)
· Fachrunnisa, Adhiatma & Mutaminah (2014)
|Workplace bullying||· Devonish (2013)|
|· Pearce & Randel (2004)
· Sizoo, Plank, Iskat & Serrie (2005)
· Francesco & Zhen (2004)
· Ashraf, Bashir, Bilal, Ijaz & Usman (2013)
· Evbuoma (2008)
|Compensation and reward||· Kowalewski & Phillips (2012)
· Mochama (2013)
· Njanja, Maina, Kibet & Njagi (2013)
· Hameed, Ramzan, Hafiz & Al (2014)
|Salary equity||· Werner & Mero (1999)
· Mochama (2013)
|Performance appraisal||· Swiercz, Bryan, Eagle, Bizzotto & Renn (2012)|
|Employee empowerment||· Gardiner (1996)|
|Employee participation and involvement||· Biswas (2011)
· Pereira & Osburn (2007)
|· Biong, Nygaard & Silkoset (2010)
· Nygaard & Biong (2010)
|Corporate or organisational climate||· Biswas & Varma (2012)
· Suliman & Harethi (2013)
· Sharma, Borna & Stearns (2009)
· McKay, Avery & Morris (2008)
|Organisational support||· Jayawardana & O’Donnell (2010)|
|Training and development||· Nguyen & Hanzel (2007)
· Shiryan, Shee & Stewart (2012)
· Bapna, Langer, Mehra, Gopal & Gupta (2013)
· Hameed & Waheed (2011)
· Bae & Patterson (2013)
|Integrated information system||· Raj, Walia & Gill (2011)|
|Total Quality Management (TQM) Practices||· Assis & Assis (2012)
· Justine & Uchechi (2012)
|High Performance Work Practices (HPWP)||· Zhang, Di Fan & Zhu (2014)
· Macky & Boxall (2008)
· Wu, Wei, Zhang & Han (2011)
|Human Resources Management Practices||· Gyu-Chang & Jong-Sung (2006)
· Ghebregiorgis & Karsten (2007)
· Daniel (2010)
· Uysal (2014)
· Mishra & Sarkar (2013)
· McCarthy & Garavan (2001)
· Kagaari, Munene & Joseph (2010)
Overall, the intensive review on how other factors may affect employee performance had found that it is indeed complicated on how different factors may affect employee performance. These different factors can be however be categorised into these dimensions, such as: individual characteristics or related factors, job related factors, supervisor related factors or even workplace factors. Having such understandings is indeed crucial to put the research carried out within this dissertation into better perspective, as organisational culture is one of the many critical factors that can affect employee performance. Nevertheless, to survey deeper into how organisational culture may affect employee performance, a review on the empirical evidences available on how organisational culture can affect employee performance will be presented accordingly in the subsequent section. This is crucial as both ‘organisational culture’ and ‘employee performance’ are crucial constructs being examined within this dissertation.
There are indeed some empirical evidences found by scholars on how organisational culture can affect employee performance. In order to supplement the discussions within this research, a review of such evidences will be briefly provided.
First of all, in the study carried out by Paarlberg (2007), the impacts of customer orientation culture towards employee performance, within governmental bodies were investigated. Through the use of both quantitative and qualitative methods, with research participants as the civilian employees at a Department of Defence; it is found that a workplace culture of customer service orientation has a strong positive impact on employee performance and motivation.
Then, in the research performed by Uddin, Luva & Hossian (2013), the effects of organisational culture on employee performance and productivity; based on a case study of telecommunication sector in Bangladesh was investigated. The company selected within the case study is Grameenphone (GP), which is actually a subsidiary of Teleron in Norway. From the research, it is found that organisational culture indeed exerts significantly influences towards employee performance and productivity in the country.
Yet, in the research performed by Tziner, Shultz & Fisher (2008), the effects of organisational culture towards issues such as leader-member exchange and organisational justice, and then how both leader-member exchange and organisational justice may affect employee performance was examined. From that research, it is found that two dimensions of organisational culture, namely: employee supportiveness and attention to detail, would affect both leader-member exchange and organizational justice; and those two issues in turn indirectly affect employee performance.
From such review of the relevant studies on effects from organisational culture on employee performance, it can be seen that evidences available support the impact of organisational culture on employee performance. Nevertheless, such notion will be further examined within this dissertation.
Overall, this essay had reviewed about the relevant literature on both ‘organisational culture’ and ‘employee performance’. From the intensive review on the two constructs, it is found that both organisational culture and employee performance are crucial issues in the context of modern business management. Then, both the construct are multi-dimensionality in nature. In other words, both organisational culture and employee performance can be and indeed shall be studied from multiple dimensions. Other than that, it is also discussed that different organisations have different cultures; i.e., there are many types of organisational cultures. Theoretically, different types of organisational culture would affect employee or organisational outcomes differently. One of the common instrument or tool used by scholars in the study on organisational culture is “Organisational Culture Profile (OCP)”. Under such a tool, the various dimensions of organisational culture within an organisation were examined. The scores on each of these dimensions of organisational culture, as achieved by a particular organisation; will be used to explain and describe the culture available within an organisation.
Yet from another perspective, it is also discussed that organisational culture is not the only factor that may affect employee performance. In other words, many other different factors may affect employee performance. These different factors can be categorised into these dimensions, such as: individual characteristics or related factors, job related factors, supervisor related factors or even workplace factors. Last but not least, a review of the relevant studies in the past on relationships or effects from organisational culture on employee performance was carried out and examined. It is found that evidences available support the notion that there are impacts of organisational culture on employee performance; or that both organisation culture and employee performance are related.
Al-Ahmadi, H. (2009). Factors affecting performance of hospital nurses in Riyadh region, Saudi Arabia. International Journal of Health Care Quality Assurance, 22(1), 40-54.
Albrecht, S. L. (2012). The influence of job, team and organizational level resources on employee well-being, engagement, commitment and extra-role performance. International Journal of Manpower, 33(7), 840-853.
Ali, N., & Zia-ur-Rehman, M. (2014). Impact of job design on employee performance, mediating role of job satisfaction: A study of FMCG’s sector in Pakistan. International Journal of Business and Management, 9(2), 70-79.
Anitha, J. (2014). Determinants of employee engagement and their impact on employee performance. International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management, 63(3), 308-323.
Ashraf, M. S., Bashir, M., Bilal, M. Y., Ijaz, K., & Usman, M. (2013). The impact of working environment on organization performance: A mediating role employee’s job satisfaction. Global Management Journal for Academic & Corporate Studies, 3(1), 131-150.
Assis, M. K., & Assis, N. T. (2012). The determination of the effect level on employee performance of TQM practices with artificial neural networks: A case study on manufacturing industry enterprises in Turkey. International Journal of Business and Social Science, 3(7), 501-520.
Asumeng, M. (2013). The effect of employee feedback-seeking on job performance: An empirical study. International Journal of Management, 30(1), 373-388.
Avey, J. B., Nimnicht, J. L., & Nancy, G. P. (2010). Two field studies examining the association between positive psychological capital and employee performance. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 31(5), 384-401.
Babu Angadi, A., & Murahari Naik, D. D. (2011). Impact of Employee’s Behavior and Culture on Organizations Productivity in Pharmaceutical Industries of Bangaluru. Recent Research in Science & Technology, 3(7), 55-57.
Bae, S., & Patterson, L. (2013). The effect of corporate investment in human capital on employee’s performance: major Korean financial corporation examined. Academy of Strategic Management Journal, 12(2), 55-76.
Bapna, R., Langer, N., Mehra, A., Gopal, R., & Gupta, A. (2013). Human capital investments and employee performance: An analysis of IT services industry. Management Science, 59(3), 641-658.
Baptiste, N. R. (2008). Tightening the link between employee well-being at work and performance. Management Decision, 46(2), 284-309.
Becker, T. E., Billings, R. S., Eveleth, D. M., & Gilbert, N. L. (1996). Foci and bases of employee commitment: Implications for job performance. Academy of Management Journal, 39(2), 464.
Behn, R. D. (2003). Why measure performance? Different purposes require different measures. Public Administration Review, 63(5), 586-606.
Biong, H., Nygaard, A., & Silkoset, R. (2010). The influence of retail management’s use of social power on corporate ethical values, employee commitment, and performance. Journal of Business Ethics, 97(3), 341-363.
Biswas, S. (2011). Commitment, involvement, and satisfaction as predictors of employee performance. South Asian Journal of Management, 18(2), 92-107.
Biswas, S., & Varma, A. (2012). Antecedents of employee performance: An empirical investigation in India. Employee Relations, 34(2), 177-192.
Bledow, R., & Frese, M. (2009). A situational judgment test of personal initiative and its relationship to performance. Personnel Psychology, 62(2), 229-258.
Carr, J. T. (1993). Using leadership criteria to measure service performance. The Journal for Quality and Participation, 16(3), 54.
Chaudhry, N. I., Ashraf, Z., & Jaffri, A. M. (2012). Mediation effects of political skills dimensions on employee performance. International Journal of Business and Management, 7(9), 120-125.
Cheng, Y., & Kalleberg, A. L. (1996). Employee job performance in Britain and the United States. Sociology: The Journal of the British Sociological Association, 30(1), 115-129.
Chieh-Peng, L., & Chun, H. M. (2004). Effects of leader-member exchange, job satisfaction, and organizational commitment on diagnosing employee job performance using career stage as a moderator. Asia Pacific Management Review, 9(1), 66-89.
Crossman, A., & Abou-Zaki, B. (2003). Job satisfaction and employee performance of Lebanese banking staff. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 18(4), 368-376.
Daniel, E. G. (2010). Organizational retention strategies and employee performance of zenith bank in Nigeria. African Journal of Economic and Management Studies, 1(1), 61-74.
Devonish, D. (2013). Workplace bullying, employee performance and behaviors. Employee Relations, 35(6), 630-647.
Dhammika, K. A. S., Ahmad, F. B., & Sam, T. L. (2012). Job satisfaction, commitment and performance: Testing the goodness of measures of three employee outcomes. South Asian Journal of Management, 19(2), 7-22.
Du Plessis, A. J., Visagie, J. C., & Wijnbeek, D. (2011). Max Weber’s theory re-visited: modern organisation culture stimulating productivity. Interdisciplinary Journal of Contemporary Research in Business, 2(12), 15-30.
Easton, C. (1996). The business game of cricket. Industrial and Commercial Training, 28(4), 13-16.
Edwards, J. S. A. (1993). Employee feeding: Productivity and performance – Part II. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 5(5), 19.
Endres, G. M., & Mancheno-Smoak, L. (2008). The human resource craze: Human performance improvement and employee engagement. Organization Development Journal, 26(1), 69-78.
Evbuoma, I. K. (2008). Impact of employee family-friendly supportiveness on work performance of employees in organizations. Ife Psychologia, 16(1), 113-131.
Fachrunnisa, O., Adhiatma, A., & Mutaminah, J. (2014). The role of work place spirituality and employee engagement to enhance job satisfaction and performance. International Journal of Organizational Innovation (Online), 7(1), 15-35.
Francesco, A. M., & Zhen, X. C. (2004). Collectivism in action: it’s moderating effects on the relationship between organizational commitment and employee performance in China. Group & Organization Management, 29(4), 425-442.
Freiling, J., & Fichtner, H. (2010). Organizational culture as the glue between people and organization: A competence-based view on learning and competence Building. Zeitschrift Für Personalforschung, 24(2), 152-172.
Futrell, C. M. (1984). The relationship of satisfaction and performance to salesforce turnover. Journal of Marketing (Pre-1986), 48(000004), 33-33.
Gardiner, P. (1996). The case for employee empowerment as a means of enhancing organisational performance. Management Research News, 19(4), 68-69.
Gardner, R. L. (1999). Benchmarking organizational culture: Organization culture as a primary factor in safety performance. Professional Safety, 44(3), 26-32.
Ghebregiorgis, F., & Karsten, L. (2007). Employee reactions to human resource management and performance in a developing country. Personnel Review, 36(5), 722.
Goddard, A. (1997). Organisational culture and budgetary control in a UK local government application. Accounting and Business Research, 27(2), 111-123.
Gyu-Chang, Y., & Jong-Sung, P. (2006). The effect of downsizing on the financial performance and employee productivity of Korean firms. International Journal of Manpower, 27(3), 230-250.
Hameed, A., & Waheed, A. (2011). Employee development and its effect on employee performance: A conceptual framework. International Journal of Business and Social Science, 2(13), 21-45.
Hameed, A., Ramzan, M., Hafiz, M. K. Z., & Al, E. (2014). Impact of compensation on employee performance (empirical evidence from banking sector of Pakistan). International Journal of Business and Social Science, 5(2)
Harrison, M. (2004). Using the four HRD stages for organisational renewal. The Journal of Management Development, 23(7), 777-786.
Harrison, R., & Stokes, H. (1992). Diagnosing Organizational Culture. San Francisco: Pfeiffer.
Hillary, A. E., & O’Reilly, C. A., III. (2007). Fitting in: The effects of relational demography and person-culture fit on group process and performance. Group & Organization Management, 32(1), 109-142.
Houger, V. P. (2006). Trends of employee performance: collaborative effort between managers and employees. Performance Improvement, 45(5), 26-44.
Hunt, S. T. (1996). Generic work behavior: An investigation into the dimensions of entry-level, hourly job performance. Personnel Psychology, 49(1), 51-51.
Ing-San, H., & Der-Jang, C. (2005). Relationships among internal marketing, employee job satisfaction and international hotel performance: An empirical study. International Journal of Management, 22(2), 285-293.
Jaksic, M., & Jaksic, M. (2013). Performance management and employee satisfaction. Montenegrin Journal of Economics, 9(1), 85-92.
Jalal, A. (2011). Enterprise resource planning: An empirical study of its impact on job performance. International Journal of Business and Information, 6(1), 77-90.
Jam, J. I., Rehman, K. U., Kamran, A. S., & Yameen, M. (2012). Impact of corporate ethical values on ethical leadership and employee performance. International Journal of Business and Social Science, 3(2), 201-222.
Jashapara, A. (2003). Cognition, culture and competition: An empirical test of the learning organization. The Learning Organization, 10(1), 31-50.
Jayawardana, A., & O’Donnell, M. (2010). Social exchange, organizational support and employee performance in Sri Lanka’s garment industry. South Asian Journal of Management, 17(2), 7-28.
Jensen, S. M., Luthans, K. W., Lebsack, S. A., & Lebsack, R. R. (2007). Optimism and employee performance in the banking industry. Journal of Applied Management and Entrepreneurship, 12(3), 57-72.
Jong, A., Ko, D. R., & Wetzels, M. (2006). Linking employee confidence to performance: A study of self-managing service teams. Academy of Marketing Science. Journal, 34(4), 576-587.
Judge, T. A., & Cable, D. M. (1997). Applicant personality, organizational culture, and organization attraction. Personnel Psychology, 50(2), 359-394.
Justine, I. C., & Uchechi, E. (2012). Enhancing employee performance in Nigeria through efficient time management frameworks. Asian Economic and Financial Review, 2(5), 635.
Kagaari, J., Munene, J. C., & Joseph, M. N. (2010). Performance management practices, employee attitudes and managed performance. The International Journal of Educational Management, 24(6), 507-530.
Kahtani, A. A. (2013). Employee emotional intelligence and employee performance in the higher education institutions in Saudi Arabia: A proposed theoretical framework. International Journal of Business and Social Science, 4(9), 108-111.
Kenny, B., & Reedy, E. (2006). The impact of organisational culture factors on innovation levels in SMEs: An empirical investigation. Irish Journal of Management, 27(2), 119-142.
Kissack, H. C., & Callahan, J. L. (2010). The reciprocal influence of organizational culture and training and development programs. Journal of European Industrial Training, 34(4), 365-380.
Ko, D. R., Wetzels, M., & Feinberg, R. (2001). Role stress in call centers: Its effects on employee performance and satisfaction. Journal of Interactive Marketing, 15(2), 23-35.
Kowalewski, S. J., & Phillips, S. L. (2012). Preferences for performance based employee rewards: evidence from small business environments. Journal of Management, 7(1) 168-172.
LaFleur, T., & Hyten, C. (1995). Improving the quality of hotel banquet staff performance. Journal of Organizational Behavior Management, 15(1), 69.
Levin, I. M. (2000). Five windows into organization culture: An assessment framework and approach. Organization Development Journal, 18(1), 83-94.
Levin, I., & Gottlieb, J. Z. (2009). Realigning organization culture for optimal performance: Six principles & eight practices. Organization Development Journal, 27(4), 31-46.
Liaw, Y., Chi, N., & Chuang, A. (2010). Examining the mechanisms linking transformational leadership, employee customer orientation, and service performance: The mediating roles of perceived supervisor and coworker support. Journal of Business and Psychology, 25(3), 477-492.
Lin, T. W. (2006). Lessons from China. Strategic Finance, 88(4), 48-55.
Lo, Y. (2012). Managerial capabilities, organizational culture and organizational performance: The resource-based perspective in Chinese lodging industry. Journal of International Management Studies, 7(1), 151-157.
Lysons, K. (2000). Concerning corporate culture. The British Journal of Administrative Management, (34), 1-4.
Macky, K., & Boxall, P. (2008). Employee experiences of high-performance work systems: An analysis of sectoral, occupational, organisational and employee variables. New Zealand Journal of Employment Relations (Online), 33(1), 1-18.
Maharani, V., Troena, E. A., & Noermijati, K. (2013). Organizational citizenship behavior role in mediating the effect of transformational leadership, job satisfaction on employee performance: Studies in PT Bank Syariah Mandiri Malang East Java. International Journal of Business and Management, 8(17), 1-12.
Markos, S., & Sridevi, M. S. (2010). Employee engagement: The key to improving performance. International Journal of Business and Management, 5(12), 89-96.
Martey, A. K. (2002). Appraising the performance of library staff in a Ghanaian academic library. Library Management, 23(8), 403-416.
McCarthy, A. M., & Garavan, T. N. (2001). 360 degrees feedback process: Performance, improvement and employee career development. Journal of European Industrial Training, 25(1), 5-32.
McKay, P. F., Avery, D. R., & Morris, M. A. (2008). Mean racial-ethnic differences in employee sales performance: the moderating role of diversity climate. Personnel Psychology, 61(2), 349-374.
Meyerson, D., & Martin, J. 1987. Cultural change: An integration of three different views. Journal of Management Studies, 18, 1-26.
Michael, J. H., Leschinsky, R., & Gagnon, M. A. (2006). Production employee performance at a furniture manufacturer: The importance of supportive supervisors. Forest Products Journal, 56(6), 19-24.
Mishra, R. K., & Sarkar, S. (2013). MOU system: Enhancing employee performance in Indian CPSEs. Journal of Strategic Human Resource Management, 2(3), 20-30.
Mochama, V. K. (2013). The relationship between allocation of equal employee benefits and employee job satisfaction and performance at the Kenya Pipeline Company, Kenya. Journal of Emerging Trends in Economics and Management Sciences, 4(2), 262-267.
Mofoluwake, A. P., & Oluremi, A. H. (2013). Job satisfaction, organizational stress and employee performance: A study of NAPIMS. Ife Psychologia, 21(2), 75-82.
Mohsan, F., Nawaz, M. M., & Khan, M. S. (2011). Impact of stress on job performance of employees working in banking sector of Pakistan. Interdisciplinary Journal of Contemporary Research in Business, 3(2), 1982-1991.
Mone, E., Eisinger, C., Guggenheim, K., Price, B., & Stine, C. (2011). Performance management at the wheel: Driving employee engagement in organizations. Journal of Business and Psychology, 26(2), 205-212.
Muafi, M. (2009). The effects of alignment competitive strategy, culture, and role behavior on organizational performance in service firms. International Journal of Organizational Innovation (Online), 2(1), 106-134.
Nafei, W. A. (2013). The impact of cultural intelligence on employee job performance: An empirical study on King Abdel-Aziz Hospital in Al-Taif Governorate, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. International Journal of Business and Management, 8(1), 26-43.
Namasivayam, K. (2003). The consumer as “transient employee”: Consumer satisfaction through the lens of job-performance models. International Journal of Service Industry Management, 14(3), 420-435.
Nguyen, F., & Hanzel, M. (2007). LO + EPSS = Just-In-Time reuse of content to support employee performance. Performance Improvement, 46(6), 8-14.
Njanja, W. L., Maina, R. N., Kibet, L. K., & Njagi, K. (2013). Effect of reward on employee performance: A case of Kenya Power and Lighting Company Ltd., Nakuru, Kenya. International Journal of Business and Management, 8(21), 41-49.
Noe, R. A. (1996). Is career management related to employee development and performance? Journal of Organizational Behavior (1986-1998), 17(2), 119.
Nygaard, A., & Biong, H. (2010). The influence of retail management’s use of social power on corporate ethical values, employee commitment, and performance. Journal of Business Ethics, 97(1), 87-108.
O’Reilly, C. A., Chatman, J., & Caldwell, D. F. (1991). People and organisational culture: a profile comparison approach to assessing person-organisation fit. Academy of Management Journal, 34(1), 487 – 516.
Olasupo, M. O. (2011). Relationship between organizational culture, leadership style and job satisfaction in a Nigerian manufacturing organization. Ife Psychologia, 19(1), 159-176.
Orpen, C. (1995). Employee job performance and relations with superior as mode. The International Journal of Career Management, 7(2), 3.
Orpen, C. (1997). The effects of formal mentoring on employee work motivation, organizational commitment and job performance. The Learning Organization, 4(2), 53-60.
Osman-Gani, A., Hashim, J., & Yusof, I. (2013). Establishing linkages between religiosity and spirituality on employee performance. Employee Relations, 35(4), 360-376.
Paarlberg, L. E. (2007). The impact of customer orientation on government employee performance. International Public Management Journal, 10(2), 201-231.
Pearce, J. L., & Randel, A. E. (2004). Expectations of organizational mobility, workplace social inclusion, and employee job performance. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 25(1), 81-98.
Pereira, G. M., & Osburn, H. G. (2007). Effects of participation in decision making on performance and employee attitudes: A quality circles meta-analysis. Journal of Business and Psychology, 22(2), 145-153.
Peters, T., & Waterman, R. (1988). In Search of Excellence. New York: Grand Central Publishing.
Pinho, J. (2014). The role of corporate culture, market orientation and organisational commitment in organisational performance. The case of non-profit organisations. Journal of Management Development, 33(4), 374-398.
Pool, S. W. (2000). The learning organization: Motivating employees by integrating TQM philosophy in a supportive organizational culture. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 21(8), 373-378.
Prenestini, A., & Lega, F. (2013). Do Senior Management Cultures Affect Performance? Evidence from Italian Public Healthcare Organizations. Journal of Healthcare Management, 58(5), 336-351.
Raj, E. S., Walia, N., & Gill, P. K. (2011). Developing an integrated information system to enhance employee performance. Global Business and Management Research, 3(1), 7-20.
Ram, P. (2013). Relationship between job satisfaction and job performance in the public sector-A case study from India. International Journal of Academic Research in Economics and Management Sciences, 2(2), 16-35.
Rijal, S. (2010). Leadership style and organizational culture in learning organization: A comparative study. International Journal of Management and Information Systems, 14(5), 119-127.
Robertson, I. T., Alex, J. B., & Cooper, C. L. (2012). Job and work attitudes, engagement and employee performance. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 33(3), 224-232.
Sargent, L. D., & Terry, D. J. (1998). The effects of work control and job demands on employee adjustment and work performance. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 71, 219-236.
Sarros, J. C., Gray, J., Densten, I. L., & Cooper, B. (2005). The organizational culture profile revisited and revised: An Australian perspective. Australian Journal of Management, 30(1), 159-182.
Sawyerr, O. O., Srinivas, S., & Wang, S. (2009). Call center employee personality factors and service performance. The Journal of Services Marketing, 23(5), 301-317.
Schein, E. H. (1983). The role of the founder in creating organizational culture. Organizational Dynamics, Summer, 13-28.
Schein, E. H. (1992). Organisational culture and leadership. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers.
Schraeder, M., & Jordan, M. (2011). Managing performance: A practical perspective on managing employee performance. The Journal for Quality and Participation, 34(2), 4-10.
Scroggins, W. A. (2008). The relationship between employee fit perceptions, job performance, and retention: Implications of perceived fit. Employee Responsibilities and Rights Journal, 20(1), 57-71.
Segundo Vito, A. A., & Taylor, S. N. (2012). The influence of emotional and social competencies on the performance of Peruvian refinery staff. Cross Cultural Management, 19(1), 19-29.
Sekiguchi, T., Burton, J. P., & Sablynski, C. J. (2008). The role of job embeddedness on employee performance: the interactive effects with leader-member exchange and organization-based self-esteem. Personnel Psychology, 61(4), 761-792.
Shaheen, I., Batool, Q., Sajid, M. A., & Nabi, G. (2013). Impact of stress on the performance of employees of banks in Kotli. International Journal of Marketing and Technology, 3(6), 85-98.
Sharimllah, D. R., Siong, C. C., & Ismail, H. (2011). Organisational culture. The International Journal of Educational Management, 25(6), 615-634.
Sharkie, R. (2009). Trust in leadership is vital for employee performance. Management Research News, 32(5), 491-498.
Sharma, D., Borna, S., & Stearns, J. M. (2009). An investigation of the effects of corporate ethical values on employee commitment and performance: Examining the moderating role of perceived fairness. Journal of Business Ethics, 89(2), 251-260.
Shi, J., Chen, Z., & Zhou, L. (2011). Testing differential mediation effects of sub-dimensions of political skills in linking proactive personality to employee performance. Journal of Business and Psychology, 26(3), 359-369.
Shiryan, S., Shee, H., & Stewart, D. (2012). Employee training effectiveness in Saudi Arabian SME performance. International Journal of Business and Social Science, 3(14), 22-25.
Silverthorne, C. (2004). The impact of organizational culture and person-organization fit on organizational commitment and job satisfaction in Taiwan. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 25(7), 592-599.
Sizoo, S., Plank, R., Iskat, W., & Serrie, H. (2005). The effect of intercultural sensitivity on employee performance in cross-cultural service encounters. The Journal of Services Marketing, 19(4), 245-255.
Smith, M. E. (2003). Changing an organisation’s culture: Correlates of success and failure. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 24(5), 249-261.
Suliman, A., & Harethi, B. A. (2013). Perceived work climate and employee performance in public security organizations in the UAE. Transforming Government: People, Process and Policy, 7(3), 410-424.
Swiercz, P. M., Bryan, N. B., Eagle, B. W., Bizzotto, V., & Renn, R. W. (2012). Predicting employee attitudes and performance from perceptions of performance appraisal fairness. Business Renaissance Quarterly, 7(1), 25-46.
Taormina, R. J. (2008). Interrelating leadership behaviors, organizational socialization, and organizational culture. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 29(1), 85-102.
Teh, C. J., Boerhannoeddin, A., & Ismail, A. (2012). Organizational culture and performance appraisal process: Effect on organizational citizenship behaviour. Asian Business & Management, 11(4), 471-484.
Tekeli, S., & Pasaoglu, D. (2011). Factors influencing performance of bank employees in turkey: Eskisehir province public and private bank sample. International Journal of Business and Social Science, 2(14), 166-172.
Topper, E. F. (2007). Supervisor’s attitude and employee’s performance. New Library World, 108(9), 460-462.
Tracey, J. B., Sturman, M. C., & Tews, M. J. (2007). Ability versus personality: Factors that predict employee job performance. Cornell Hotel and Restaurant Administration Quarterly, 48(3), 313-322.
Tran, T. B., & Davis, S. R. (2013). Evaluating staff performance: A Markov chain approach. Advances in Management and Applied Economics, 3(5), 21-39.
Tziner, A., Shultz, T., & Fisher, T. (2008). Justice, leader-member exchange, and job performance: are their relationships mediated by organizational culture?. Psychological Reports, 103(2), 516-526.
Uddin, M. J., Luva, R. H., & Hossian, S. M. M. (2013). Impact of organizational culture on employee performance and productivity: A case study of telecommunication sector in Bangladesh. International Journal of Business and Management, 8(2), 63-77.
Uysal, G. (2014). Taylor, HRM, strategic HRM with jobs, employee performance, business performance relationship: HR governance through 100 years. Journal of American Academy of Business, Cambridge, 19(2), 307-314.
Vandenberghe, C. (1999). Organizational culture, person-culture fit, and turnover: A replication in the health care industry. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 20(2), 175-184.
Werner, S., & Mero, N. P. (1999). Fair or foul?: The effects of external, internal, and employee equity on changes in performance of major league baseball players. Human Relations, 52(10), 1291-1311.
White, M. (1999). Performance, equality and staff development. Human Resource Management Journal, 9(1), 47-54.
Wong, S. I., Nerstad, C. G. L., & Dysvik, A. (2014). Empowering leadership, employee goal orientations and work performance. Personnel Review, 43(2), 246-271.
Wu, L., Wei, L., Zhang, Y., & Han, T. (2011). Employee experienced HPWPs and job performance: Roles of person-job fit and intrinsic motivation. Frontiers of Business Research in China, 5(3), 344-363.
Yurchisin, J., & Park, J. (2010). Effects of retail store image attractiveness and self-evaluated job performance on employee retention. Journal of Business and Psychology, 25(3), 441-450.
Zabid, A. R., Sambasivan, M., & Johari, J. (2003). The influence of corporate culture and organisational commitment on performance. The Journal of Management Development, 22(7), 708-728.
Zachariadou, T., Zannetos, S., & Pavlakis, A. (2013). Organizational culture in the primary healthcare setting of Cyprus. BMC Health Services Research, 13(1), 1-8.
Zhang, M., Di Fan, D., & Zhu, C. J. (2014). High-performance work systems, corporate social performance and employee outcomes: Exploring the missing links. Journal of Business Ethics, 120(3), 423-435.
Zhen, X. C., Tsui, A. S., & Farh, J. (2002). Loyalty to supervisor vs. organizational commitment: Relationships to employee performance in China. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 75, 339-356.