Research Method for Business
SPSS Analysis: A Sample

Introduction

The issue to be researched is to understand if there are any differences between a person’s high school GPA score as well as his college GPA score.

 

Secondary data will be used. The data will be obtained from academic textbook. The textbook is Green, S. B., & Salkind, N. J. (2008). Using SPSS for windows and Macintosh: Analyzing and understanding data (5th Ed.). Pearson: Prentice Hall. The data can be downloaded from http://www.pearsonhighered.com/salkind/ (Chapter 21).

 

In order to perform this research, randomly selected college students are done. Their respective genders, high school GPA as well as their current college GPA are recorded. In order to perform this research, descriptive statistics will be used to firstly understand the nature of the data set. Then, correlation coefficient will be calculated to see if there are any differences between a person’s high school GPA to his college GPA.

Statistical Calculations and Data Analysis

The calculated statistics are summarized in the following tables. Data analysis will be provided in this section as well.

 

Table 1

 table-1

 

Table above shows the descriptive statistics of the three variables under researched. From the table, the mean of high school GPA scores is 2.5379, while it is 2.4871 for College GPA Scores. The standard deviation for high school GPA scores is higher, than college GPA scores.

 

Figure 1

 figure-1

 

Histogram above shows the gender of the people that had participated in this research. From the histogram, it is found that Male participants are more than female participants. However, the differences are not obvious.

 

Figure 2

 fig2

 

Histogram above shows the distribution of high school GPA Scores. The data is not normally distributed.

 

Figure 3

 fig3

 

Histogram above shows the data for College GPA Scores. It is found that the data is roughly normally distributed.

 

Table 2

 table-2

 

Table above shows the Pearson correlation calculated from the data set. It is found that the correlation coefficient is 0.027. It is not statistically significant. In other words, it means that high school GPA Scores cannot be used to predict college GPA Scores. A person that did well in high school may not do well again in college.

 

It is worthy to mention that possible errors that can occur to affect the accuracy of the data and results calculated include:

  1. The students participated in the research design do not provide accurate information.
  2. The students selected are not random – may be they all come from a same class.
  3. The students never study in UK high school. Thus, different benchmark is used to measure their GPA score, and had impacts our findings.

Limitations of the Secondary Data

There are many weaknesses in the secondary data:

  1. Data collection process is not mentioned.
  2. The specific college that data is collected is not mentioned.
  3. The date of the collection is not mentioned.
  4. The field of study of the students participated in this study is not mentioned.
  5. It is not specifically mentioned that the data is collected on a random basis.
  6. It is not mentioned how to cater to the issues where high school student that does not further their study in college, already working in a company, too poor to study or had already went overseas to pursue their study.

Improvements

In order to improve this study, the following can be made:

  1. Design a questionnaire to gather information from all college students. It is best to get such information from the college administrative office, where the record for each of the student’s high school and college GPA Scores are stored.
  2. One the data is collected; it can be tabulated into Excel, and analyzed.
  3. The research results will be more accurate because the entire population in a single high school is selected.
  4. In order to further improve the reliability of the research results. Randomly selected college student from all college in UK can be done.
  5. Similarly, all the data is to be collected from the college administrative office.
  6. Those students studying in UK college, but if they fulfill the characteristics mentioned below should be excluded:
    1. They never study in UK high school
    2. They come from overseas
    3. They had worked for quite some time before they enrolled in college
  7. Then the data can be tabulated and analyzed. This can make the results more reliable because the research findings will not be subjected to specific issues occurring in a single high schools or college (for example, the lecturers in the college is very bad; the educational system in the college is incomplete and etc.)

 

Conclusion

There are advantages and disadvantages of using either primary or secondary data. The advantages or disadvantages will be compared in the following paragraphs.

 

Advantages of primary data:

  • Researchers can know the details.
  • Researchers can control the data collection process.

 

Disadvantages of primary data:

  • It is costly to collect data.
  • It need a lot of time to collect data.
  • Sometimes, other people may not willing to provide certain data to researchers.

 

Advantages of secondary data:

  • It is fast to get.
  • It is cheaper to get.
  • It provides the researchers an easy way to know the situation without doing much work.

 

Disadvantages of secondary data:

  • Many details are not available to researchers.
  • It may already been outdated (i.e., data collected in 10 years ago may not be relevant anymore).
  • The researchers cannot know if the secondary data is truly reliable.
  • Research process cannot be controlled.

 

References

Green, S. B., & Salkind, N. J. (2008). Using SPSS for windows and Macintosh: Analyzing and understanding data (5th Ed.). Pearson: Prentice Hall.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Appendix

High School GPA Score      College GPA Scores             Gender (1=Men; 2=Women)

2.62                                        2.93                                        2

1.91                                        2.59                                        2

3.00                                        2.61                                        2

2.95                                        2.67                                        2

2.92                                        2.64                                        2

2.74                                        3.03                                        2

2.07                                        3.07                                        2

1.78                                        2.64                                        1

1.77                                        1.71                                        1

1.17                                        2.32                                        1

1.83                                        2.26                                        1

1.13                                        2.80                                        1

3.79                                        2.34                                        1

2.04                                        2.37                                        1

3.50                                        2.64                                        1

4.00                                        2.05                                        1

2.11                                        2.57                                        2

3.87                                        2.94                                        1

2.62                                        2.93                                        2

2.59                                        2.74                                        1

1.19                                        2.32                                        1

2.14                                        2.81                                        1

4.00                                        2.10                                        1

2.18                                        2.15                                        1

2.50                                        2.85                                        1

2.64                                        1.17                                        1

3.02                                        2.08                                        2

1.24                                        2.36                                        2

3.19                                        2.25                                        2

2.09                                        2.94                                        2

3.22                                        3.09                                        2

2.95                                        2.62                                        2

2.24                                        2.01                                        1

4.00                                        2.46                                        2

3.78                                        3.03                                        2

1.12                                        3.34                                        2

3.50                                        2.18                                        1

4.00                                        2.64                                        1

3.38                                        2.60                                        1

2.81                                        2.37                                        1

2.20                                        2.13                                        1

2.04                                        2.95                                        2

1.69                                        2.00                                        1

2.07                                        2.05                                        1

2.62                                        2.19                                        2

3.21                                        1.91                                        1

1.06                                        2.44                                        2

1.32                                        2.10                                        1

2.21                                        1.84                                        1

1.29                                        2.06                                        1

3.99                                        2.45                                        2

2.44                                        2.72                                        2

4.00                                        2.06                                        1

3.15                                        2.24                                        2

1.44                                        2.05                                        2

2.54                                        2.75                                        2

1.36                                        3.13                                        2

2.61                                        2.48                                        1

1.00                                        2.47                                        1

1.93                                        3.06                                        2

2.30                                        2.58                                        2

1.32                                        2.20                                        2

3.10                                        2.82                                        2

3.50                                        2.79                                        2

2.59                                        2.22                                        2

4.00                                        2.56                                        1

2.52                                        2.75                                        1

1.69                                        3.31                                        2

2.08                                        2.59                                        1

2.62                                        3.37                                        2

1.99                                        2.67                                        1

2.74                                        2.44                                        2

2.92                                        2.69                                        2

4.00                                        2.86                                        2

1.85                                        1.58                                        1

1.54                                        1.79                                        1

2.26                                        1.75                                        1

2.53                                        2.62                                        1

1.39                                        3.14                                        2

3.00                                        3.45                                        2

2.62                                        1.94                                        1

2.50                                        2.41                                        1

3.00                                        2.27                                        1

2.50                                        3.25                                        2

3.19                                        2.66                                        2

3.86                                        2.38                                        1

 

 

 

 

 

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